Guinea-Bissau dating guide advises how to meet single girls. You just need to know the basic steps how to date Bissau-Guinean women. Learn how to arrange dates with hot Bissau-Guinean girls, how to take your relationship to the next level and how to find your soulmate and fall in love. Read more on how to date local women and where to meet girls in Guinea-Bissau, Africa.
Girls in Guinea-Bissau:
- Looks of girls: 3 / 5
- Attitude of girls: 2.5 / 5
- Loyalty of girls: 2.5 / 5
- Education level of girls: 3 / 5
Dating in Guinea-Bissau:
- Chance of arranging dates: 3 / 5
- Casual dating culture: 3.5 / 5
- Online dating popularity: 2.5 / 5
Sex in Guinea-Bissau:
- Women's sexual activity: 3.5 / 5
- One-night stands: 3 / 5
More about Guinea-Bissau:
- Nightlife in general: 2.5 / 5
- Locals' English level: 1.5 / 5
- Budget per day: US$40 - $300
- Accommodation: US$10 - $150
- 1 Dating
- 2 Women
- 3 Sex
- 4 Best Places to Meet Single Girls
- 5 Relationship
- 6 Love
- 7 Marriage
- 8 Regions
- 9 Cities
- 10 See Also
The Republic of Guinea-Bissau is a country in West Africa that covers 36,125 square kilometers with an estimated population of 1,600,000 people. It borders Senegal to the north and Guinea to the south-east and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Guinea-Bissau has a history of political instability since independence, and only one elected president has successfully served a full five-year term.
Only about 2% of the population speaks Portuguese, the official language, as a first language, and 33% speak it as a second language. Creole is the national language and also considered the language of unity. 54% of the population speaks Creole as a first language and about 52% speak it as a second language. The remainder speaks a variety of native African languages. There are diverse religions in Guinea-Bissau with no one religion having a majority. The country's per-capita gross domestic product is one of the lowest in the world.
Bissau-Guinean girls are interesting and enjoyable. The girls in the country are polite and kind and welcoming to foreigners. Although most girls have not gone beyond secondary school, they are literate and are good company, always ready to spend their time with you.
Life in Guinea Bissau and in particular, the dating culture is a blend between the various local traditions and some western bits. The native culture is largely based on Islamic law. This law does not encourage casual dating but one only gets into a relationship if the end goal is marriage. While men and women may socialize, the conversation is never centered on getting into a relationship unless the two are discussing their marriage. Things have slightly changed as the presence of European foreigners in the country has seen fewer restrictions on socialization and it is now common to see men and women at social places together having a good time which may result in a casual hookup and not necessarily a serious relationship.
However social distancing is practiced as an outright display of affection whether during courtship or before is still a rare occurrence.
In Guinea-Bissau, women represent 51 percent of the population but are still underrepresented in the political sphere. However, they are more often victims of human rights violations: early and forced marriage, domestic violence, female genital mutilation, sexual abuse and violence and sexual harassment in the workplace. Being a woman in Guinea-Bissau means living a hard life because most of them live in extreme poverty and to sustain their household and ensure the education of their children they need to sell vegetables, fish, or clothing on the streets.
In urban centers, women work alongside men in the government. Urban men who are not employed by the government drive taxis, work in local factories and are employed as laborers, sailors, and dock workers. Urban women do domestic work and trade in the markets. In the villages, children herd livestock, and young people work collectively to weed or prepare fields. Women do most domestic tasks. In some regions, women perform agricultural tasks that once were done by their husbands.
Although women have gained several protective legislative rights since independence—such as the prohibition of forced and child marriage, and easier access to divorce—these have been implemented unevenly. Guinea-Bissau’s human development indicators are among the lowest in the world, especially for women: life expectancy for women is 59 years, childbirth is the leading cause of women’s mortality, and literacy among women is at 44%. The failure of the postcolonial state to fulfill Cabral’s egalitarian vision has not only marginalized women’s political and economic status within the country; it may have contributed to the overall weakening of key state institutions.
Nearly 30% of female youth of secondary school age are out of school compared to 21% of male youth of the same age. For the youth of secondary school age, the biggest disparity can be seen between urban and rural youth. Fifty-eight percent of adult women aged 15-49 are illiterate. Data shows that among young women 15-24 years of age, 60% were illiterate, and in rural areas 84% of young women were illiterate. Given the post-coup decline in socioeconomic conditions and the educational problems discussed above, it is likely that women’s illiteracy will remain high, especially in rural areas.
The current Government is made up of 60 Ministries. Of those five are led by women. Out of the 15 Secretaries of State, one is a woman. The United Nations has been giving technical and financial support to the Government, the National Assembly and women's organizations in drafting legislative packages that protect women. In the Defense and Security sector, gender equality is far from being a reality. There is little female representation in key positions in the army or the higher rankings. For example, in the police, there are only four women colonels and in the armed forces, there are just two colonels.
Female genital mutilation is deeply rooted in Guinean culture, especially in Fula and Mandinka. In 2010, 50% of girls between 6 and 14 years were circumcised when young or on attaining puberty.
The absence of a legal framework that protects women's participation in political, economic, and social life contributes greatly to the inequality between men and women. This is in the status of women and the development of laws in their favor.
Bissau-Guinean Girls (age 18 - 29)
These girls here are at the age of transition where girls leave teenage and get into adulthood. This transition results in the young girls here being the most beautiful. At this point, hormones are released into the body of these girls. The action of this hormone results in the development of secondary sexual features in women. The breasts which were hitherto flat protrude and become round and supple while the hips and buttock grow in size.
Since these girls are just getting into adulthood, many of them are not yet financially dependent. Many still depend on their parents for support though some seek side jobs to supplement their income and better their lives. It is at this stage that girls also look to carve an identity for themselves. Those who do not come from rich families usually try to match up to their richer counterparts. They do so either by looking for additional income streams such as entrepreneurship or getting other jobs.
On average, Addis Ababa girls are generally well-endowed. At this age bracket, the girls' bodies are developing in the right places. The breasts are firm and pointed and the girls dress to accentuate their prominence. Their bums also grow round and big and they will be noticeable as most girls dress in tight dresses, skirts, and trousers to show off the form of their bodies. Addis Ababa girls are known for their liberal dressing and they are comfortable to walk around with low-cut tops that show cleavage and miniskirts to expose their thighs. This gets better when they go out in the evenings as the clothes get shorter and tighter and more and more flesh is exposed.
Even though this is the best age to go for if you are looking to having just a good time or even if you are looking for a long relationship, there are a few things you need to be aware of. First of all, if you want a serious commitment, you may need to consider the older girls (27+). This is because the younger girls tend to be unsure of what they want and so they may juggle between two or more men. Unless you want to be part of this game, the older the better.
Bissau-Guinean Women (age 30 - 45)
Since these women are more financially stable, they can purchase pricier hence better clothes than when they were young. Those who are still single or the liberal ones will still be inclined to put on tight clothes that enhance their features. The married ones dress more conservatively. These women are also able to purchase better fashion accessories, jewelry and beauty products which they put both at work and when they go out.
Those who had not married earlier get married and settle down in their families. As they do so, they strive to maintain a balance between the family and their businesses or jobs and social lives. Many people lose friends at this time as they are unable to find time to catch up as was the case earlier in life. It is also at this time that many women make choices in their careers before settling down to pursue what they want and this will affect how they spend their time.
Apart from the married ones, women at this age are easy to hook up with. This is because of the urge to settle down which makes them more outgoing and receptive to approaches by men. Hooking up with these women is easy and good as they are generally more mature than their younger peers and so they have an understanding of what a relationship entails. errands.
Bissau-Guinean Ladies (age 45+)
Just like in the category above, the women here can either be housewives or businesswomen. The housewives tend to have more children than those women who take the business path. This is because the housewives have more time for themselves and can manage to take care of children. The ones pursuing business will be content with two or three children as they have to deal with the vagaries of balancing work and family.
No matter how beautiful a girl may have been in her early years, women above 45 years tend to lose some of their sparks. She will be struggling with many personal complications and those on the older side may be having health issues as well.
You may come across a divorced woman above 45 years who through sheer luck may have kept herself well and may be ready for a relationship. You will have to prepare to go the long haul with her as anything short of that may end up making her look like an adulteress and face the wrath of the locals.
Foreign Girls (tourists, expats, students, etc.)
Years of coups and civil wars made Guinea Bissau highly unattractive to foreigners. Since the country gained independence from Portugal in 1973, only one president has been able to rule through a full five-year tenure. The country has been characterized by very many regime changes which often plunge the country into violence due to the nature of the regime change. With the country holding one of its most peaceful elections in 2019, the country is slowly picking up and many foreigners are trickling into the country.
One group of foreign girls in Guinea Bissau is made up of tourists. After years of neglect and mismanagement, the administration is embarking on restoring the country's tourist attraction sites with the hope of attracting more tourists. The country boasts of a large variety of wildlife and rare plant species that attract nature enthusiasts from all over the world. The government has also begun marketing the country as a safe place for tourists and dispels the prevailing understanding of Guinea Bissau being a war-ravaged and crime-prone country.
As the country is embarking on rebuilding after years of turmoil, another group of foreign girls in the country are expatriates. The country relies on knowledge and skill from its former colonial master, Portugal as well as other European and neighboring countries as it revives its industries and open enterprise opportunities.
It is relatively easy to have sex with Equatorial Guinea girls. You only need to know where and who to approach to have an opportunity. This, however, does not mean that Equatorial Guinea girls are always promiscuous and ready to drop their pants. This simply means that there is less conservativeness among Equatorial Guinea girls due to an influx of western cultures and a mixture of many other cultures which has led to a loss of the traditional values that characterized Equatorial Guineans before the modern times.
Adolescents all over the world are sexually active, but the age at which they start having intercourse varies between regions and, within a country, between urban and rural settings. Generally, young men report beginning sexual activity earlier than young women because premarital sex is accepted for males, whereas women are expected to postpone the initiation of intercourse until they marry. Despite the common belief that young people start having sex earlier than previous generations did, in most Sub-Saharan African countries, the average age at first intercourse has either remained the same or has increased, especially in urban settings.
The sex culture is Equatorial Guinea is quite active. Many young men have casual sex. Part of this is the increased access to mobile phones which are used to plan dates. There are many Equatorial Guinea dating agencies on the internet.
One-night stands are some of the easiest ways for you to engage in sex without a lot of commitment and investment. In many African countries, one-night stands are generally a new concept as many cultures are loudly against sex before marriage. This has led to a slower uptake in one-night stands and casual sexual affairs.
This is changing as more and more people are being exposed to the western way of life either through physical interaction, through studies and film. What was hitherto a taboo way of life is slowly gaining acceptance as an alternative way of life as opposed to having to wait till marriage before engaging in sex.
Best Places to Meet Single Girls
Guinea Bissau, a stunning place in western Africa is just a stunner. If you want a pleasing and rocking trip, you must plan to visit this mesmerizing place. This awesome place is simply studded with beautiful archipelagos, stunning islands, varied and glorious wildlife and marine life, beautiful and stunning cruise and boat rides and much more for a memorable trip. If you are planning to visit this glorious place, there are awesome places to visit and have a fantastic experience and a rich and cherishable trip.
Bars, Pubs and Nightclubs
Bissau is a country full of people who seriously know how to have after-dark fun. In the capital, you can find a bar on every corner but as far as nightclubs go you only have two options.
• Balafon: Balafon is a small club that is situated on the bottom floor of the Kalliste Hotel. It is open every night of the week but it fires up from Thursday through till Sunday. On the weekends it is very difficult to find a place to sit but the music is good and the staff is efficient. It will help to get a table as most of the tables are reserved for people drinking from a bottle.
• Discoteca Tabanka: Discoteca Tabanka is the big hitter in town and most certainly this is where the night can get crazy. The music is loud and the dance floor is usually packed. People don't start coming in there till after midnight but once you reach the 1 o'clock mark then the place gets jumping. You will also struggle to get a table on the weekends, but if you get there early then the helpful staff will probably try and find a place for you to set up your base for the night.
• Saboura: Guineans and expatriates head to Saboura to dance to Guinean and African beats until the sun comes up. The place is usually teeming on Thursday nights. Saboura is in the Pilom neighborhood. The club is found in Bissau and opens at 8 pm till late.
• X-Club: At X Club, you get to join the odd assembly of hard-working UN staff, shady businessmen and sparkling party folk on their glitzy trip through the night. This club in Bissau opens at 8 pm till late.
• Insonias: Get lost among the plastic palm trees and plastic people at Insónias, a bizarrely decorated club popular with the NGO and UN crowd at weekends. The club opens at 8 pm till late from Thursday to Sunday.
• Amazonia: This discotheque was the property of the Indian family which dominates the cashew trade in Guinea-Bissau. Chicer, classier and more expensive than the others, it attracts young people from the Guinean nomenclature and the Old Portuguese from Bissau.
• Tropicana: Atmosphere guaranteed on weekends. The setting of this partly open-air disco is the most pleasant in Bissau. We play all styles of music but especially funk and disco.
• Club Plack: It is underground. The music is Cape Verdean. A small, intimate box for fairly select customers, who would not want to be seen at other joints.
Some of the malls in Guinea Bissau include:
• Teditronic Guiné-Bissau Mall
• Ebroad Bissau Sarl
• Mini Mercado Compre Mais
• Centro de Bafatá, Bafata
• Casa Nasser, Canchungo
• Galomaro Cossé, Galomaro
• Mercado Crintin de Bafata, Bafata
Parque Natural das Lagoas de Cufada: Sandwiched between the Buba and Corubal Rivers, this 890-sq-km park is the largest wetlands reserve in Guinea-Bissau. Kayaking across placid waters on an early morning amid twittering birds (there are an estimated 250 species here) makes the effort to get here worthwhile. There's an observation post where you can sit, appreciate the view and tick-off sightings. There are also African buffalos, gazelles, hyenas, white hippos and crocodiles in the park.
Artissal: An inspiring community project that introduces visitors to the traditions of the Papel people. Pano de Pente, symbolic weavings made by Papel men on large makeshift looms, are used in a variety of ceremonies and rituals. A visit to local workshops can be arranged. It's located at the entrance to Quinhámel.
Bubaque Museum: Houses a collection of masks, sculptures and other ritual objects collected by an Italian missionary
Fortaleza d'Amura: Surrounded by imposing, if decomposing stone walls, this fort, originally built in 1753, is the headquarters of the Guinean military and off-limits to visitors. After dark, exercise caution when walking past the fort, which is off the southern end of Av Pansau Na Isna, and the area close to the port.
Pidjiguiti Monument: Three separate monuments to martyrs of the 1959 Pidjiguit Massacre when striking dockworkers were killed by the colonial police force. August 3rd, the day of the event, is a national holiday. There's also a bust of Amílcar Cabral in the square.
Parque Nacional das Ilhas de Orango: Though it consists of several other islands (Ilha de Imbone, Ilha de Orangozinho, Ilha de Canogo and Ilha de Meneque), the heart of Parque Nacional das Ilhas de Orango is its namesake, Ilha de Orango. Travelers know the latter as the site of Anôr Lagoon, where you can spot rare and sacred saltwater hippos, which live in both the sea and freshwater. Besides wildlife and birds, there are breathtaking beaches.
Dulombi-Boe National Park: A land unknown and unmapped, the largest of Guinea-Bissau’s national parks is one for only the most intrepid of travelers. It’s packed with winding river channels and pockets of riparian woodland, endless swathes of grassy savannah land that sways in the West African breezes, and the bending courses of the Corubal as it flows from the inland hills towards the Atlantic in the west. You can also expect to see the likes of African cats and oodles of grazing herds amidst the fields.
The duo of João Vieira and Poilão, another set of specks amidst the much-vaunted archipelago of the Bissagos Islands, is where endangered Atlantic sea turtles clamber over the shells and sandbanks to lay their eggs. Given the exoticism and sheer beauty of their backcountry and coast, it’s hardly surprising that the whole area is now encompassed by a national marine reserve. Rare groups of tourists pass through, eager to hop aboard a carved piragua (a traditional Guinea-Bissau canoe) and weave between the inlets and wetlands, the sandy stretches and palm-peppered dunes in search of rare marine creatures.
The fabled birthplace of the celebrated independence revolutionary Abel Djassi, little Bafatá is a riverside town with panache. Proud of its political traditions and beautifully imbued with green areas, swaying palm trees and the meanders where the Geba joins the Colufe, it’s a place to come and sample the laid-back bucolic vibes of one of the country’s provincial hotspots. But that’s not it, because Bafatá is also surrounded by the rolling gallery jungles that occupy the heart of the nation; the home of crocs, interesting West African mammals, rare monkeys and more
Universities and Colleges
Guinea Bissau is home to numerous colleges and universities. Some of the most known ones are:
• Universidade Amílcar Cabral in Bissau
• Universidade Colinas de Boé in Boé
• Faculdade de Direito de Bissau in Bissau
The Guinean culture is very colorful, thanks to the people’s diverse ethnic backgrounds. The population is made up of different tribes with distinct languages, social structures and customs, but Guineans are generally very accepting of their differences. As each ethnic group has its traits and behavior in matters of dating, there are common characteristics of Bissau-Guineans. Public displays of affection are acceptable but should be kept to a minimum. This kind of display is considered to be a lot more appropriate when it occurs between two people of the same sex rather than between people of the opposite sex.
Many of us would rather leave them on the beach, in the mountains, or wherever they started than pursue them and risk getting heartbroken. But vacation romances can last, and you shouldn't let something special get away just because you don't live in the same place or didn't originally intend to date long-term. The hard thing about holiday romances is letting go of something as perfect as a dream, but don’t be afraid of losing what you cherish. The gift of holiday romances is that they teach us that sometimes the best things in life are not meant to last forever. Some may, but for others, they’re a hopeful reminder of what’s just around the corner – that “bliss” is possible, the unexpected is always the best, and that sometimes it’s worth it to be free of your inhibitions and to be vulnerable.
Guinea Bissau offers you a perfect opportunity and location for a holiday romance. The country has many interesting attractions and pristine beaches which are a perfect place to go on a date with your loved one. The country has a liberal culture through which you can express your affection. You just need to understand the culture of the people.
Tips for Successful Relationship
By nature, human beings are social and we all long to find someone with whom we can enjoy our lives whether it is for a short time or even marriage. Good relationships require that the two of you go out of your way and offer support and love for each other at all times. There are many ways through which the two of you can work to make your relationship successful.
We all come from different backgrounds. There will be someone who will be richer than you, stronger than you or even more educated than you. On the flip side, there will be someone who will be poorer than you, weaker than you or less educated than you. It is therefore important that we learn to accept others as they are. You will not always fall in love with someone who matches all your preferences, this should not cause your relationship to end but you should embrace each other and what you perceive as their shortcomings.
Closely related to accepting others, you should be open about your life to your partner at all times even when it is hard. You will not always be financially stable and able to take your girl to the fancy restaurant that you always do or buy her that expensive gift that you had promised. If you are unable to fulfill any of what you are expected to do, you should be candid enough to admit that you are unable.
As you continue to date your girlfriend, you need to be observant enough to understand her. It will help you to know what makes her happy or sad, what she likes or dislikes. This will help you to avoid future conflict as you will know what you can and cannot do whenever you are with her. What may seem to be trivial to you may be serious to her such as a word you speak or a little habit that you may be having. Knowing this will ensure that you remain in her good books.
One way of having a successful relationship is by understanding that there will be times when you will have to sacrifice whatever makes you comfortable for the good of the relationship. While each of you must have your defining principles and traits, a time will come when you will need to let go. However, this should not be misunderstood to mean that you must always compromise but rather it is within your informed discretion to know when to say yes and when to say no.
Whether it is in Guinea Bissau or anywhere else, the feeling of being in love is something that we all look forward to at a point in our lives. From birth and throughout, we are born with an innate longing to love and to be loved. At times, falling in love may be seen from a distance. However, most times you will never know how things happen but you will find yourself being attracted and later attached to someone who a while back was a stranger. With the many activities that Guinea Bissau has to offer, being in love here is going to be one of the best things ever.
The dynamics and expression of love may vary from one place to another but the feeling of love is always the same. Falling in love in Guinea Bissau is a promising and fulfilling experience. If you chose to look for love from a local girl, you are sure to get a good girl. Women from Equatorial Guinea have docile characters, soft temper, kindness, hard-working, sympathy, tolerance and readiness to love and be loved. The main rule while dating a local girl is refusing all stereotypes and being open to the traditions of other nations. Every nation is special and has its peculiar properties, so it is better to avoid discussing such issues as politics and religion unless you are sure of its appropriateness.
How to Make Sure She Is the One
As we look for love, we always wish to get someone with whom we can spend the rest of our lives comfortably. Choosing the right partner requires more than just looking at her beauty or how curvy her body is. These are desirable characteristics of any woman but if you want someone you will build a life with, you need to deeper than the skin.
We live in a fast-moving world where many things demand our attention. We move from our work to school to family and on to many other things. It is always a challenge to have time for the fine things in life as we struggle to make a living. Amid all these activities, the one who is interested in you will create time to be with you. An indication of the one who is into you is to observe how she acts when you are with another woman. Women are territorial and so when she sees you with someone whom she considers to be even a distant competitor for your attention, she will have a spiteful look on her. While she may try to act cool so as not to betray her feeling, be on the lookout for the body language of uneasiness.
Any woman who has plans of having a future with you will want to know about your goals and ambitions in life. Women always plan with the future in mind and she will want to be sure that she commits to someone with aspirations for a stable future. There will be times in life when you will need a shoulder to lean on. Most of the time, calamities or bad situations befall us unexpectedly. At other times, our own mistakes and actions may get us into trouble. No matter how you find yourself in a bad place, a good woman will show when you need someone and ask the questions later. She only wants the best for you.
Before she makes any major decision, the woman for you will always seek your counsel. Sometimes, the decisions may be as trivial as what way to make her hair of what dress to put on for an event. Other times, it may be as significant as a career change. If she consults you in this, she considers you an important part of her life and that is something you may want to consider.
A good woman will seek to know more about you from the moment you hook up. She will want to know not just about the seemingly important things such as your career or your age, she will want to know which soccer team you support, your favorite color or even your nicknames. This information will help her to understand you better and also to know how to plug into your life.
The minimum legal age of marriage in Guinea-Bissau is 18 years. However, with parental consent, children as young as 16 years can marry with their parent’s consent. Even with this law, 24% of girls in Guinea-Bissau are married before their 18th birthday and 6% are married before the age of 15.
The practice of forced marriage is common in Guinea-Bissau, especially in the regions of Gabú and Bafatá. However, it is difficult to know the exact number of forced marriages as a large number of them are unofficial or unregistered. Even though this is strictly forbidden by law, the process to make the law applicable is very inefficient, the people often reject these laws, making them ineffective. In Guinea-Bissau, parents force their daughters to marry for different reasons. Poor parents find it difficult to take care of their young daughters and marrying them off is a strategic way out of poverty. It is also a fact that many parents consider forcing their young daughters to marry for protection. A young girl living with her husband avoids pregnancy before marriage.
Just like in many African countries, there are two types of marriages recognized in Guinea Bissau; traditional marriage and civil marriages. Despite its relatively small size, Guinea Bissau is home to more than 15 different ethnic groups. All these groups have their different culture concerning marriage but there are common aspects. In all cultures, the groom is expected to pay the bride-wealth to the bride's family. This is usually in the form of livestock and cash.
In civil marriages, the following are required before the marriage is registered:
• A certificate of matrimonial capacity may be required if one of the spouses is not a citizen of Guinea-Bissau
• A birth certificate is required to prove the ages of the future husband and wife.
• Passport for identification
Marriage can be expensive because the bride's family often requires the groom to provide costly gifts or to farm family land for many years. Besides, a communal feast must be provided at the wedding. Many men marry late because they have to save money for the event. Polygamy is common because many believe that the more wives a man has, the more respect he is shown.
The commitment between a couple becomes official when some members of the boyfriend's family (those related on the father's side) visit the girlfriend's family and bring them two or three pumpkin bowls filled with palm wine. The acceptance of the gifts means that a tie has been established between the two families.
While most Ivoirians are devout followers of any mainstream religion, many opt to solemnize their wedding in a church after the traditional ceremonies. The wedding ceremony will follow the order of the host church. During the wedding service, the marriage certificate is usually signed in church and handed over to the couple by the officiating clergy. Besides, a communal feast must be provided at the wedding.
According to the country’s laws, family structure is based on a patriarchal model, whereby the husband is the head of the household and can in effect ‘represent’ the wife in public life. This power is extended over economic activities impeding the wife from engaging in trading activities without the husband’s consent. To a large extent, such provisions are contradictory to constitutional provisions.
Traditions and customary laws also greatly influence family structures. In some ethnic groups, customary laws do not allow women from inheriting property, which is rather passed on to a male heir. Similarly, some groups practice widow inheritance, forcing the widowed woman to marry a male relative of the deceased husband. Regarding polygamy, almost half of women in unions are de facto in polygamous marriages.